Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being 2021-06-17T08:36:49-07:00 Journal of CSWB Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of CSWB</em>&nbsp;is a<strong>&nbsp;peer-reviewed</strong>&nbsp;and<strong>&nbsp;open access</strong>&nbsp;publication that is positioned to be the authoritative global resource for high-impact research that, uniquely, spans all human service and criminal justice sectors, with an emphasis on their intersections and collaborations. The Journal showcases the latest research, whether originating from within Canada or from around the world, that is relevant to Canadian and international communities and professionals.&nbsp;</p> Embracing a multi-disciplinary reality: Introducing our Contributing Editor Community and our continuing LEPH2021 theme 2021-06-17T08:33:24-07:00 Norman E. Taylor 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Norman E. Taylor A U-shaped association between depression and vigorous physical activity: A cross-sectional study in a cohort of police officers and staff in England 2021-06-17T08:35:34-07:00 Rabeea Maqsood Sarah Buckingham Karyn Morrissey <p>Policing has become an increasingly sedentary occupation. At the same time, rates of depression are increasing across the police force. Vigorous physical activity (VPA) has been associated with decreasing rates of depression, yet studies of VPA in policing are limited. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of depression and examine its association with VPA in police officers and staff in England, further stratified by gender. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of the Airwave dataset was undertaken. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Of 28,465 police officers and staff in England, 12% reported having doctor-diagnosed depression and 25% were physically inactive. Relative to being physically inactive, undertaking VPA for either four or seven days was significantly associated with having the lowest odds of reporting depression (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.51–0.70, p &lt; 0.001) (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.45–0.77, p &lt; 0.001), respectively, suggesting a U-shaped/non-linear relationship. This relationship was also observed in the gender-stratification analysis. While the odds of reporting depression were significantly lower for men than women, VPA was significantly associated with reducing the odds of reporting depression slightly more in women (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.27–0.67, p &lt; 0.001) than in men (OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33–0.75, p &lt; 0.01), indicating women may be more likely to benefit from VPA than men. Vigorous physical activity may provide a protective effect against depression. To prevent the onset of depression in the target population, policy-makers should consider designing physical activity guidelines for police officers to promote VPA in the target population.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rabeea Maqsood, Karyn Morrissey, and Sarah Buckingham Comparing the lifestyles of victims: A routine activity theory assessment of repeat victimization in Canada 2021-06-17T08:36:24-07:00 Zavin Nazaretian Chivon Fitch <p>This paper simultaneously explores the relationship between social status, routine activity theory, and repeat victimization. This study compares the effects of lifestyle with key social status variables like gender, race, and sexuality, on varying degrees of victimization to answer the question: do routine activities or social status predict repeat victimization? This research is a secondary data analysis using two waves of the Canadian Victimization Survey from 2004 and 2009. Both a logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression are used to analyze the possible causes of repeat victimization. Overall, social status is influenced by lifestyle when predicting victimization; however, key social status variables predict high levels of victimization such as identifying as gay or lesbian or being an Aboriginal Canadian. The most powerful indicator of victimization was if a victim had been previously arrested themselves. The results of this study suggest that, while lifestyle is a strong predictor of victimization, minority groups are still at risk of being victimized at higher levels.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Zavin Nazaretian, and Chivon Fitch Law enforcement agencies’ approach to de-escalation: Incorporating a social services perspective 2021-06-17T08:35:59-07:00 Lisa Deveau <p>In this critical review and social innovation narrative, we analyze the literature regarding Canadian law enforcement agencies’ approach to de-escalation and crisis intervention. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we consider how the skills and values of social work can be used to inform and train officers on essential skills such as de-escalation and conflict resolution. We look at the systemic barriers to bringing about change within Canadian police forces as the current culture continues to be influenced by colonization and law enforcement continues to value and endorse use of force over de-escalation. While services can benefit by applying an interdisciplinary lens when training officers, the factors that impede this union and collaboration are discussed and explored as police services are given immense discretion in how they train and respond to mental health crises. In conclusion, we examine the government’s role in perpetuating these issues.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lisa Deveau Improving police transparency in Canada 2021-06-17T08:33:50-07:00 Lance Valcour <p>The path to improved police transparency in Canada includes the use of advanced technology with capabilities such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, “cloud” enabled services, and an ever-increasing number of data collection and management tools. However, these innovations need to be closely linked with a national—not federal—stakeholder review of current legal, legislative, and privacy frameworks. This article provides readers with a high-level overview of the issue of police transparency in Canada. It then outlines a number of key challenges and opportunities for improving this transparency. It concludes with a call to action for key Canadian stakeholders to work collaboratively to improve police transparency in Canada.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lance Valcour The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on domestic violence and child abuse 2021-06-17T08:34:15-07:00 Sandra M. Bucerius Brad W.R. Roberts Daniel J. Jones <p>In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments around the world have implemented lockdown or mass quarantine measures. While the purpose of these measures is to prevent the spread of the virus, they have had important social consequences. To determine the effect that pandemic-related isolation and quarantine measures have had on domestic violence and child abuse, we analyzed Canadian police calls for service data from 2015 to 2020. Our findings indicate that calls for service related to both domestic violence and child abuse have significantly increased during the pandemic. In light of these findings, we make recommendations for both government officials responsible for pandemic management and policing organizations on how to prevent increases in domestic violence and child abuse during future lockdowns.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sandra M. Bucerius, Brad W. R. Roberts, and Daniel J. Jones Promising indications in the journey of the Mental Health Pathway collaboration between police and health in Scotland 2021-06-17T08:34:43-07:00 Claire Coleman <p>Mental Health Pathway is a pioneering collaborative project in Scotland between police and health professionals seeking to get the first point of contact right for the public in relation to their mental health. Six months after the launch of the first stage, we take a reflective look over what has taken place and look to the future plans.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Claire Coleman Observational study of visual testing efficacy in detecting cannabis usage 2021-06-17T08:36:49-07:00 Phillip Olla Mustafa Abumeeiz Lauren Elliott Rachel Foote Mialynn Lee-Daigle Stephen Bartol Laszlo Erdodi <p>Drug recognition and examination programs are widely used to detect drug impairment in motor vehicle operators. Visual tests are a key assessment in the detection of cannabis-related impairment. Participants were recruited via social media from the medical cannabis community in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Twenty-two participants completed the full observational trial design. The majority (n = 13 or 59.1%) were male, with a mean age of 36 years (SD = 9.4; range: 24–59). Participants underwent the following protocol: 1) First round of testing (vital signs, bio sample collection, visual tests, subjective data, neurocognitive testing) (Baseline phase); 2) Consumption of cannabis via inhalation; 3) Second round of testing 30 minutes following consumption (THC phase); 4) Additional rounds of testing at 90, 150, and 210 minutes following consumption (Recovery phase). Visual assessment data and vital signs did not follow typical patterns associated with acute cannabis intoxication. With blood THC levels more than double the Canadian legal limit (5 ng/mL), visual testing results were not diagnostic for cannabis impairment, as participants maintained normal pupil sizes and normal ocular convergence patterns. Visual testing is a key component in standardized examinations used for detecting cannabis-related impairment in Canadian drivers; however, our data indicate that visual testing may not be an effective diagnostic tool for the specific population of medical cannabis users.</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Phillip Olla, Mustafa Abumeeiz, Lauren Elliott, Rachel Foote, Mialynn Lee-Daigle, Stephen Bartol, and Laszlo Erdodi Canadian Police Knowledge Network: The power of technology, standards, and collaboration 2021-06-17T08:35:09-07:00 Sandy Sweet <p>The Canadian Police Knowledge Network (CPKN) is a not-for-profit organization that delivers high-quality technology-enhanced professional development for Canadian police. Through collaboration, technology, and standards CPKN has established a credible model that offers a reliable, cost-effective solution to meet the increasingly diverse and complex needs of contemporary policing. This article examines CPKN’s evolution from an online learning service provider to a nationally recognized leader in police learning and professionalization. It specifically explores the role of ongoing collaboration within the Canadian police community, through CPKN, to develop nationally relevant training and to modernize the competency-based management framework to establish more nationally consistent competency standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-16T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. A. Sandy Sweet