Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being 2021-03-20T08:27:24-07:00 Journal of CSWB Open Journal Systems <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of CSWB</em>&nbsp;is a<strong>&nbsp;peer-reviewed</strong>&nbsp;and<strong>&nbsp;open access</strong>&nbsp;publication that is positioned to be the authoritative global resource for high-impact research that, uniquely, spans all human service and criminal justice sectors, with an emphasis on their intersections and collaborations. The Journal showcases the latest research, whether originating from within Canada or from around the world, that is relevant to Canadian and international communities and professionals.&nbsp;</p> The enduring and contagious optimism of change makers 2021-03-20T08:23:56-07:00 Norman E. Taylor 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Norman E. Taylor Police De-Escalation Training & Education: Nationally, Provincially, and Municipally 2021-03-20T08:25:39-07:00 Lisa Deveau <p>In this critical review and social innovation narrative, the current literature on de-escalation and policing is reviewed. The following explores how services train recruits and experienced officers on de-escalation, conflict resolution, and crisis intervention skills. A limited environmental scan was completed to inquire about the number of hours dedicated to de-escalation training compared with tactical and combative training within Ontario law enforcement agencies. The environmental scan also considered how services respond to imminent mental heath crises, as some services rely on mental health professionals to respond to 911 emergencies with police officers, through the Mobile Crisis Team. Within the literature, questions are proposed about the government’s role in overseeing policing, and why there fails to be any federally or provincially mandated training and approach to mental health and de-escalation within Canadian law enforcement. The author ultimately advocates for systemic change by highlighting the priorities, values, and contradictions within Canadian police services which have been influenced by colonization and patriarchal narratives.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lisa Deveau Building trust in modern day policing: A neighbourhood community officer evaluation 2021-03-20T08:24:22-07:00 Samnit Mehmi Robert Blauer Kathryn De Gannes <p>Over the past several years the Toronto Police Service has engaged in forming partnerships with communities that have been plagued with high crime rates and have traditionally not trusted the police through the implementation of The Neighbourhood Community Officer Program. The program places Neighbourhood Community Officers in the community for three to five years with a strict mandate to build trust through professionalism, cooperation, and partnerships with community members. Prior research on the program displayed that it was achieving most of its mandate. To determine whether it was still enjoying success, a thematic analysis was conducted on interviews with social agencies that worked with Neighbourhood Community Officers and social agencies that did not.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Samnit Mehmi, Robert Blauer, Kathryn De Gannes Systemic Discrimination in Policing: Four Key Factors to Address 2021-03-20T08:26:04-07:00 Rajnish Saini <p>Canada’s demographic landscape is comprised of a breadth of cultures and religious beliefs, racialized groups, Indigenous persons, and genders and sexual orientations. In contrast, the demographic composition of many police services in Canada does not reflect the communities they serve. While efforts of police services across Canada to diversify have led to a proliferation of racial minorities, women, and Indigenous persons gaining employment within police organizations, serious obstacles of exclusion, racism, and discrimination remain. This paper will critically analyze four factors that accentuate and contribute to systemic discrimination in policing and provide recommendations to identify, mitigate, and address this issue.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rajnish Saini Pop culture and social insertion: How can play in adolescence and adulthood be “therapeutic”? 2021-03-20T08:26:30-07:00 Anne M. Goodall Alexis H. Truong <p>In this study we explore how participation in tabletop role-playing games (TTRPGs) fosters experiences of social insertion in adolescence and adulthood. We conducted semi-directed interviews with nine participants who identified themselves as having used such practices to overcome difficult and challenging life experiences. We look at how participants interpreted their play experiences, described by some as “therapeutic.” Through TTRPGs, players were able to explore and better understand aspects of themselves, explore new interactions, and “test” new ways of expressing themselves. Additionally, participants were able to develop their interpersonal skills by participating in such practices, namely because of the roleplaying element. Participants stated that these practices and their therapeutic qualities also had positive effects on their lives outside of the game, helping them to enter and engage in various social situations that they previously felt excluded from, or hesitant to participate in. We argue that social interventions could invest in these types of cultural practices, embedded in popular culture, to encourage and facilitate participation of adolescents and adults in mental health services.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anne M. Goodall, Alexis H. Truong From public safety to public health: Re-envisioning the goals and methods of policing 2021-03-20T08:25:13-07:00 Jeremiah Goulka Brandon del Pozo Leo Beletsky <p>-</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jeremiah Goulka, Brandon del Pozo, Leo Beletsky A call for de-policing crisis responses: Distressed children and youth caught between the mental health and police systems 2021-03-20T08:27:24-07:00 Maria Liegghio Herberth Canas Alexis Truong Salomi Williams <p>In this paper, we present the outcomes of a narrative study of 13 interviews with six child and youth mental health<br>practitioners and seven caregivers with a child between 12 and 24 years old involved with the mental health system and with a history of police involvement. The focus of the interviews was on the experiences of young people involved with the mental health system, and their caregivers, with police encounters. Two categories of themes emerged. Presented here are the outcomes that show the contradictions between the child and youth mental health and police systems as contributing factors to the stigmatization and criminalization of psychiatrically distressed children and youth. A call is made for a collaboration between the mental health and police systems rooted in a commitment for de-policing crisis responses in child and youth mental health.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Liegghio, Herberth Canas, Alexis H. Truong, Salomi Williams Ten years after: Enduring questions and celebrating answers about situation tables and CSWB 2021-03-20T08:24:47-07:00 Norman E. Taylor 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Norman E. Taylor Leadership approaches in law enforcement: A sergeant’s methods of achieving compliance with racial profiling policy from the front line 2021-03-20T08:26:58-07:00 Paul Rinkoff <p>This research aims to fill a void in the extant policy implementation literature that has overlooked the leadership contribution of sergeants to the successful adoption of policy decisions by front-line police officers. Using a qualitative approach and a sociological institutionalism perspective, and focusing on the racial profiling policy of a large North American municipal police organization, 17 sergeants representing 17 divisions (precincts) were interviewed. This research does not aim to assess the efficacy of the selected policy but, rather, examines leadership and supervisory perspectives relating to implementation and compliance. The findings demonstrate the methods used by sergeants to influence and achieve the compliance of front-line police officers with the racial profiling policy. Methods include auditing, being present, training, encouraging, rewarding, and disciplining. To explain these methods, it is theorized that sergeants blend two leadership approaches to ensure front-line officers conform to the racial profiling policy: an authoritative leadership approach and a supportive leadership approach. This study emphasizes the leadership contributions of sergeants when attempting to implement perceived controversial or unpopular policy—in this case, racial profiling policy—in a police organization and contains implications for law enforcement leaders, oversight committees, policy writers, and all government legislators who oversee public safety and security.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Paul B. Rinkoff