Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb <p>The&nbsp;<em>Journal of CSWB</em>&nbsp;is a<strong>&nbsp;peer-reviewed</strong>&nbsp;and<strong>&nbsp;open access</strong>&nbsp;publication that is positioned to be the authoritative global resource for high-impact research that, uniquely, spans all human service and criminal justice sectors, with an emphasis on their intersections and collaborations. The Journal showcases the latest research, whether originating from within Canada or from around the world, that is relevant to Canadian and international communities and professionals.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Copyright of any article published in The&nbsp;<em>Journal of CSWB&nbsp;</em>is retained by the author(s). Authors grant The Journal a&nbsp;<a href="https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/libraryFiles/downloadPublic/1">License to Publish</a>&nbsp;their article upon acceptance. Articles published in The Journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/</a>.&nbsp;</p> ntaylor@cskacanada.ca (Journal of CSWB) support@sgpublishing.ca (SG Publishing Support Services) Wed, 15 Dec 2021 12:30:13 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Compassion as a leadership competency in justice https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/231 Daniel J. Jones Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel J Jones https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/231 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Confirmation bias: A barrier to community policing https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/219 <p>This is a very challenging time for police–community relations, one characterized by a mutual lack of trust between police and citizens. But trust is an important tenet of effective community policing. Trust between police and communities can result in better problem solving, fewer legal violations by citizens, less frequent use of force by the police, less resistance by citizens during arrests, greater willingness to share information, less inclination to riot, and greater willingness of community members and police to cooperate. One key obstacle to fostering trust between the community and police is confirmation bias—the tendency for people to take in information and process it in a way that confirms their current preconceptions, attitudes, and beliefs. Recognizing and addressing confirmation bias, therefore, plays a critical role in fostering more productive engagement. If we are to improve police–community relations and co-create a way forward, learning to approach debates with open minds, an awareness of the lens of our own perspectives, commitment to considering the opposite, and the goal of listening with curiosity are essential.</p> Michael D. Schlosser, Jennifer K. Robbennolt, Daniel M. Blumberg, Konstantinos Papazoglou Copyright (c) 2021 Michael David Schlosser, Jennifer K. Robbennolt, Daniel M. Blumberg, Konstantinos Papazoglou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/219 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Law enforcement wellness: Promoting the “good” during the “bad” and “ugly” https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/209 <p>Wellness and resilience have been at the epicenter of attention amongst many law enforcement researchers, clinicians, and professionals in recent years. Both resilience and wellness aim to provide law enforcement officers with knowledge and effective tools that can be employed during both professional and personal challenges. The current manuscript presents wellness within a context of prevalent conditions and/or situations (i.e., what is called “Good” during the “Bad” and “Ugly”) that law enforcement officers experience as part of their duties as well as in their personal lives. The authors aim to raise awareness of police wellness that needs to be viewed within the context of police work and not in a vacuum. Considering that, tangible actions and recommendations are also discussed.</p> Konstantinos Papazoglou, Katy Kamkar, Jeff Thompson Copyright (c) 2021 Katy Kamkar, Konstantinos Papazoglou, Thompson Jeff https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/209 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Pandemic meets epidemic: Co-location of COVID-19 and drug overdose deaths in the United States https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/216 <p><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW117972955 BCX0">Drug overdose deaths (DOD) in the last two decades have increased over 300 percent. In 2019 alone, 71,000 deaths represented a 7% increase from the previous year. According to recent data released by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 81,230 overdose deaths occurred in the United States from June 2019 to May 2020, the highest number of DOD recorded in a 12-month period. Early 2020 saw the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, which CDC suggests has amplified the previously alarming rise in drug-related mortalities. A hot spot analysis of COVID-19 and DOD rates, as well as a spatial correlation between the two datasets at the state level on a monthly time step, showed a significant increase in DOD during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study, conducted for the period of March through July 2021, showed a spatial correlation between the two types of mortalities in the initial months of 2020. Furthermore, the hot spots for both types of mortalities were concentrated in the northeastern states. The COVID-19 mortalities shifted southeast in July 2020, but DOD data was unavailable for further analysis. Since DOD are a leading contributor to preventable deaths, the results of the study may help focus the efforts of effective and innovative programs to reduce substance use disorder and related mortality through increased access to treatment. During the pandemic, access to such facilities was reduced.</span></p> Navya Tripathi, Nancy Hardt Copyright (c) 2021 Navya Tripathi, Nancy Hardt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/216 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Modern-day slavery, human rights and the sex industry https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/212 <p>This article explores the sex industry in Canada as modern-day slavery and an ongoing violation of basic human rights. Some argue that the sex industry is something that women or children choose to do as a legitimate profession, and others argue that they are exploited and manipulated by other people for indebtedness, for clothing, food, shelter or to support substance or alcohol addictions. How should the laws around sex trafficking and sexual exploitation be designed? The government could be in a position to legally ensure dignity and human rights protection for those engaged in selling sex. This paper highlights the perspectives of survivors of the sex industry as they describe heart-wrenching experiences that include torture, physical threats, psychological fear, and manipulation. As the public discourse grows around this ongoing scourge, momentum for change is also growing. There have been numerous efforts to address, disrupt, and end this social scourge. Our awareness of modern-day sex slavery atrocities seems to coincide with a greater sense of respect for fundamental human rights and a desire to protect them.</p> Bob Chrismas, Brandi Chrismas Copyright (c) 2021 Brandi Alexandra Chrismas, Bob Chrismas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/212 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Sex industry slavery: Protecting Canada’s youth—A book review https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/230 Julie Craddock Copyright (c) 2021 Julie Craddock https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/230 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Peeling the paradigm: Exploring the professionalization of policing in Canada https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/227 <p>Maintaining public trust, legitimacy, and credibility in a constantly evolving society has proven challenging for police in the 21st century. Rising public concerns regarding police accountability are driving the need to advance the paradigm of policing by reassessing the organizational structure of law enforcement in Canada. Supported by research identifying primary directives for maintaining public trust, this proposal argues that the time has come for policing to evolve from an occupation into a formal profession. Just as any other occupation that has advanced into a profession, provincial regulatory colleges of policing should be formed with the key objective of protecting the public from malpractice and malfeasance. A provincial college of policing would allow for (a) sustained and inclusive recruitment strategies, (b) foundational knowledge of the scholarship of policing, (c) evidence-based academy training, (d) mandatory ongoing (in-service) police education, and (e) expert, objective, community-focused, independent oversight. This proposal uses characteristics of the College of Policing in England and Wales as a guiding framework for the support and preparation of professionalizing policing in Canada.</p> Kelly Sundberg, Christina Witt, Graham Abela, Lauren M. Mitchell Copyright (c) 2021 Kelly Sundberg, Christina Witt, Graham Abela, Lauren Mitchell https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/227 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Store robberies for tobacco products: Perceived causes and potential solutions https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/210 <p>Robberies of New Zealand convenience stores for tobacco products spiked between 2016 and 2017. According to media reports, many robberies involved the use of weapons and resulted in injury to retailers. We conducted a content analysis of all online media articles containing commentary about these robberies, published between 2014 and 2019, to identify the perceived causes of the increase in robberies for tobacco and remedies implemented or demanded. The commentators in the articles were categorized into three groups of stakeholders: elites, grassroots, and interest groups. Overall, there was a mismatch between perceiving the primary cause to be socially and economically determined and suggesting solutions that were mostly situational shop level changes or tertiary prevention strategies, such as more and harsher policing. A further mismatch was that existing policing policy was not adapted to balance the perverse consequences of the tobacco excise tax increases. Early commentators tended to deflect blame away from their own sector. Later commentary converged to agree that the high tobacco excise tax was a critical causal factor.</p> Marewa Glover, Robin Shepherd, Hamed Nazari, Kyro Selket Copyright (c) 2021 Marewa Glover, Robin Shepherd, Hamed Nazari, Kyro Selket https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/210 Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Thank you to our reviewers https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/235 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journalcswb.ca/index.php/cswb/article/view/235 Fri, 03 Dec 2021 09:37:08 -0800